Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is a protein that is made in the liver, bone, intestines and kidneys.  Pregnant women also make ALP in the placenta. ALP is mostly made in the liver and in the bones.  ALP is also present in the bile ducts–the tubes that contain the fluid made in the liver that is necessary for digestion. The primary purpose of the ALP blood test is for the diagnosis of liver or bone disease.

NORMAL ALP RESULTS
A typical ALP range that is considered normal is between 44 to 147 international units per liter (IU/L).

HIGHER THAN NORMAL ALP RESULTS
A higher than normal level of ALP can be caused by:
Bone disease
Obstruction of the bile ducts (sometimes leading to gallstones)
Hepatitis (swelling of the liver)
Hyperparathyroidism (an abnormally high concentration of parathyroid hormone in the blood)
Leukemia
Liver disease
Lymphoma
Paget’s disease (deformity of the bones)Rickets (bone disease suffered by children)

LOWER THAN NORMAL ALP RESULTS
A lower than normal level of ALP can be caused by:
Malnutrition
Protein deficiency
Wilson’s disease (too much copper in the blood)
Celiac disease (difficulty in digesting food)